Exploring the performance of nanostructured reagents with organic-group-defined morphology in cross-coupling reaction

Kashin A. S., Degtyareva E. S., Eremin D. B., Ananikov V. P., Nat. Commun., 2018, 9, 2936.
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The great impact of the nanoscale organization of reactive species on their performance in chemical transformations creates the possibility of fine-tuning of reaction parameters by modulating the nano-level properties. This methodology is extensively applied for the catalysts development whereas nanostructured reactants represent the practically unexplored area. Here we report the palladium- and copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction involving nano-structured nickel thiolate particles as reagents. On the basis of experimental findings we propose the cooperative effect of nano-level and molecular-level properties on their reactivity. The high degree of ordering, small particles size, and electron donating properties of the substituents favor the product formation. Reactant particles evolution in the reaction is visualized directly by dynamic liquid-phase electron microscopy including recording of video movies. Mechanism of the reaction in liquid phase is established using on-line mass spectrometry measurements. Together the findings provide new opportunities for organic chemical transformations design and for mechanistic studies.

Revealing the Unusual Role of Bases in Activation/Deactivation of Catalytic Systems: O–NHC Coupling in M/NHC Catalysis

Chernyshev V. M., Khazipov O. V., Shevchenko M. A., Chernenko A. Yu., Astakhov A. V., Eremin D. B., Pasyukov D. V., Kashin A. S., Ananikov V. P., Chem. Sci., 2018, 9, 5564-5577.
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Numerous reactions are catalyzed by complexes of metals (M) with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands, typically in the presence of oxygen bases, which significantly shape the performance. It is generally accepted that bases are required for either substrate activation (exemplified by transmetallation in the Suzuki cross-coupling), or HX capture (e.g. in a variety of C–C and C-heteroatom couplings, the Heck reaction, C–H functionalization, heterocyclizations, etc.). This study gives insights into the behavior of M(II)/NHC (M = Pd, Pt, Ni) complexes in solution under the action of bases conventionally engaged in catalysis (KOH, NaOH, t-BuOK, Cs2CO3, K2CO3, etc.). A previously unaddressed transformation of M(II)/NHC complexes under conditions of typical base-mediated M/NHC catalyzed reactions is disclosed. Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes widely used in catalysis react with the bases to give M(0) species and 2(5)-oxo-substituted azoles via an O–NHC coupling mechanism. Ni(NHC)2X2 complexes hydrolyze in the presence of aqueous potassium hydroxide, and undergo the same O–NHC coupling to give azolones and metallic nickel under the action of t-BuOK under anhydrous conditions. The study reveals a new role of NHC ligands as intramolecular reducing agents for the transformation of M(II) into "ligandless" M(0) species. This demonstrates that the disclosed base-mediated O–NHC coupling reaction is integrated into the catalytic M/NHC systems and can define the mechanism of catalysis (molecular M/NHC vs. "NHC-free" cocktail-type catalysis). A proposed mechanism of the revealed transformation includes NHC-OR reductive elimination, as implied by a series of mechanistic studies including 18O labeling experiments.

“Solvent-in-Salt” Systems for Design of New Materials in Chemistry, Biology and Energy Research

Azov V. A., Egorova K. S., Seitkalieva M. M., Kashin A. S., Ananikov V. P., Chem. Soc. Rev., 2018, 47, 1250-1284 .
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Inorganic and organic "solvent-in-salt" (SIS) systems have been known for decades but have attracted significant attention only recently. Molten salt hydrates/solvates have been successfully employed as non-flammable, benign electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries leading to a revolution in battery development and design. SIS with organic components (for example, ionic liquids containing small amounts of water) demonstrate remarkable thermal stability and tunability, and present a class of admittedly safer electrolytes, in comparison with traditional organic solvents. Water molecules tend to form nano- and microstructures (droplets and channel networks) in ionic media impacting their heterogeneity. Such microscale domains can be employed as microreactors for chemical and enzymatic synthesis. In this review, we address known SIS systems and discuss their composition, structure, properties and dynamics. Special attention is paid to the current and potential applications of inorganic and organic SIS systems in energy research, chemistry and biochemistry. A separate section of this review is dedicated to experimental methods of SIS investigation, which is crucial for the development of this field.

Ten-Fold Boost of Catalytic Performance in Thiol-Yne Click Reaction Enabled by a Palladium Diketonate Complex with a Hexafluoroacetylacetonate Ligand

Eremin D. B., Boiko D. A., Borkovskaya E. V., Khrustalev V. N., Chernyshev V. M., Ananikov V. P., Catal. Sci. Technol., 2018, 8, 3073-3080.
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Palladium complexes with fluorinated acetylacetonate chelating ligands were studied as catalysts for alkyne hydrothiolation. A ten-fold increase in the catalytic efficiency was achieved by using 0.1 mol% of Pd(hfpd)2 complex (hfpd = hexafluoroacetylacetonate) with a variety of thiol–yne coupling partners. The principal possibility of a hundred-fold increase in the efficiency of Pd-catalyzed Markovnikov-type RSH addition with 0.01 mol% of the catalyst was successfully achieved with the hfpd ligand for the first time. The hexafluoroacetylacetonate chelating ligand not only enhanced the affinity of palladium centers to the triple bond of acetylene, but also stabilized the catalytic system against formation of insoluble polymeric [Pd(SPh)2]n species, thus ensuring that the reaction operates homogeneously. Utilizing other diketonate ligands resulted in cocktail-type catalysis with variable and poorly predictable contributions of homogeneous and heterogeneous pathways.

Green and Sustainable Route to Carbohydrate Vinyl Ethers for Accessing Bio-Inspired Materials with a Unique Microspherical Morphology

Rodygin K. S., Werner I., Ananikov V. P., ChemSusChem, 2018, 11, 292–298.
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Synthesizing chemicals and materials based on renewable sources is one of the main tasks of modern science. Carbohydrates represent excellent renewable natural raw materials, that are eco-friendly, inexpensive and biologically compatible. Herein, we developed a green vinylation procedure for carbohydrates using readily available calcium carbide. Various carbohydrates were utilized as starting materials resulting in mono-, di- and tetra-vinyl ethers in high to excellent yields (81-92 %). The synthesized bio-based vinyl ethers were utilized as monomers in free radical and cationic polymerizations. A unique combination of smooth surface and intrinsic microcompartments was achieved in the synthesized materials. Two types of bio-based materials were prepared involving microspheres and "Swiss cheese" polymers. Scanning electron microscopy with built-in ion beam cutting was applied to reveal the spatial hierarchical structures in three-dimensional space.

Chemical Transformations of Biomass-Derived C6-Furanic Platform Chemicals for Sustainable Energy Research, Materials Science, and Synthetic Building Blocks

Kucherov F.A., Romashov L.V., Galkin K.I., Ananikov V.P., ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 2018, ASAP.
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Recent advances in the area of biomass-derived C6-furanic platform chemicals for sustainable biomass processing are analyzed focusing on chemical reactions important for development of practical applications and materials science. Among the chemical processes currently being studied, tuning the amount of oxygen-containing functional groups remains the most active research direction. Production of efficient fuels requires the removal of oxygen atoms (reduction reactions), whereas utilization of biomass-derived furanic derivatives in material science points out the importance of oxidation in order to form dicarboxylic derivatives. Stimulated by this driving force, oxidation and reduction of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) are nowadays massively studied. Moreover, these fundamental transformations are often used as model reactions to test new catalysts, and HMF transformations guide the development of new catalytic systems. From the viewpoint of organic synthesis, highly diverse chemical reactivity is explored and a number of bioderived synthetic building blocks with different functional groups are now accessible. This Perspective covers the most recent literature (since Jan 2017) to highlight the emerging research trends.

Fast and Slow Release of Catalytically Active Species in Metal/NHC Systems Induced by Aliphatic Amines

Khazipov O.V., Shevchenko M.A., Chernenko A.Yu., Astakhov A.V., Pasyukov D.V., Eremin D.B., Zubavichus Y.V., Khrustalev V.N., Chernyshev V.M., Ananikov V.P., Organometallics, 2018, 37, 1483-1492.
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The behavior of ubiquitously used nickel, palladium, and platinum complexes containing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands was studied in solution in the presence of aliphatic amines. Transformation of M(NHC)X 2L complexes readily occurred according to the following reactions: (i) release of the NHC ligand in the form of azolium salt and formation of metal clusters or nanoparticles and (ii) isomerization of mono-NHC complexes M(NHC)X2L to bis-NHC derivatives M(NHC)2X2. Facile cleavage of the M–NHC bond was observed and provided the possibility for fast release of catalytically active NHC-free metal species. Bis-NHC metal complexes M(NHC)2X2were found to be significantly more stable and represented a molecular reservoir of catalytically active species. Slow decomposition of the bis-NHC complexes by removal of the NHC ligands (also in the form of azolium salts) occurred, generating metal clusters or nanoparticles. The observed combination of dual fast- and slow-release channels is an intrinsic latent opportunity of M/NHC complexes, which balances the activity and durability of a catalytic system. The fast release of catalytically active species from M(NHC)X2L complexes can rapidly initiate catalytic transformation, while the slow release of catalytically active species from M(NHC)2X2 complexes can compensate for degradation of catalytically active species and help to maintain a reliable amount of catalyst. The study clearly shows an outstanding potential of dynamic catalytic systems, where the key roles are played by the lability of the M–NHC framework rather than its stability.

Rapid 'Mix-and-Stir' Preparation of Well-defined Pd/C Catalysts for Efficient Practical Usage

Yakukhnov S. A., Pentsak E. O., Galkin K. I., Mironenko R. M., Drozdov V. A., Likholobov V. A., Ananikov V. P., ChemCatChem, 2018, 10, 1869-1873.
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A facile direct deposition approach for the preparation of recyclable Pd/C catalysts simply by stirring a solution of Pd 2dba3 with a suitable carbon material was evaluated. An extraordinary rapid catalyst preparation procedure (< 5 min) under mild conditions and its excellent performance in cross-coupling and hydrogenation reactions were demonstrated. The key point for catalyst design was to directly deposit Pd(0) centers onto highly accessible surface area and to avoid ill-defined Pd(II)/Pd(0) states.

Influence of R–NHC Coupling on the Outcome of R–X Oxidative Addition to Pd/NHC Complexes (R = Me, Ph, Vinyl, Ethynyl)

Gordeev E.G., Eremin D.B., Chernyshev V.M., Ananikov V.P., Organometallics, 2018, 37, 787-796.
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Oxidative addition of organic halides (R–X) to (NHC)Pd 0L complexes is involved in numerous metal-catalyzed reactions, and this step is expected to afford (NHC)PdII(R)(X)L intermediate complexes. However, these complexes may undergo further transformation via R–NHC coupling, which removes the NHC ligands from the metal and results in the generation of "bare" NHC-free metal species. The comparative theoretical study carried out in the present work revealed that the kinetic and thermodynamic stability of the (NHC)PdII(R)(X)L oxidative addition intermediates depends strongly on the nature of the organic group R. The predicted reactivity in the R–NHC coupling process decreases in the following order: R = Vinyl > Ethynyl > Ph > Me. Accordingly, for R = Me, a classical (NHC)PdII(R)(X)L intermediate can be expected as a product of the oxidative addition step, whereas for R = Ph, the outcome of the oxidative addition may already contain the NHC-free palladium complex. For R = Ethynyl, comparable amounts of both complexes should be formed, while for R = Vinyl, the NHC-free palladium complex can be the major product of the oxidative addition process. Unusual thermodynamic and kinetic instability of the (NHC)Pd(vinyl)(X)L complex and the tendency to vinyl–NHC coupling predicted by the computational modeling has been confirmed by experimental measurements with online mass spectrometric reaction monitoring. Thus, the outcome of the oxidative addition strongly depends on the type of organic group R and the R–NHC coupling process greatly influences the activity and stability of metal catalysts.

Ionic Liquids As Tunable Toxicity Storage Media for Sustainable Chemical Waste Management

Seitkalieva M. M., Kashin A. S., Egorova K. S., Ananikov V. P., ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 2018, 6, 719–726.
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Storage and handling of toxic wastes is a top-priority challenge for sustainable development and public health. In recent years, the risk of irreversible environmental pollution has been increasing gradually, necessitating the development of new concepts in this highly demanding area. Here, we report a flexible approach to address the problem using tunable ionic liquids as a carrier and storage medium for chemicals. Encapsulation in microscale tunable media surrounded by an inert ionic liquid facilitates the efficient capture of chemicals. The adaptive character of the designed microscale compartments opens new possibilities for the waste management of chemicals of a diverse nature. Real-time field-emission scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize the formation of microscale compartments upon the sequestration of chemicals in ionic liquids. Ionic liquids captured the chemicals better than traditional organic solvents or water; moreover, the chemicals subsequently could be effectively extracted for destruction or utilization. Our work presents a new model for the sustainable management of chemical wastes; the concept was evaluated for a number of multiton chemicals currently affecting our environment.

Micro-Scale Processes Occurring in Ionic Liquid–Water Phases During Extraction

Seitkalieva M. M., Kashin A. S., Egorova K. S., Ananikov V. P., Sep. Purif. Technol., 2018, 196, 318-326.
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For the first time, extraction process in ionic liquids was visualized by direct electron microscopy observation. Microscopy images revealed the micro-heterogeneous nature of the studied extraction systems. Depending on the nature of ionic liquids and studied compounds, four main micro-scale areas were observed: a) uniform homogeneous phase; b) microcompartments in the liquid phase; c) solid microinclusions on the phase boundary; and d) solid microinclusions inside the separated microphases. The microscopic monitoring showed stepwise sequence of the extraction process, and the retention ability of the ionic liquid–water system decreased in the following order: homogeneous phase > microcompartments > solid microinclusions.

[3 + 2]-Cycloaddition of in Situ Generated Nitrile Imines and Acetylene for Assembling of 1,3-Disubstituted Pyrazoles with Quantitative Deuterium Labeling

Voronin V.V., Ledovskaya M.S., Gordeev E.G., Rodygin K.S., Ananikov V.P., J. Org. Chem., 2018, 83, 3819–3828.
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A novel synthetic methodology for the preparation of 1,3-disubstituted pyrazoles from in situgenerated nitrile imines and acetylene is reported. The reactions are performed in a simple two-chamber reactor. One part of the reactor is loaded with hydrazonoyl chloride precursors of active nitrile imine species and a base. The other part is used to generate acetylene from CaC2 and water. Partitioning of the reactants improves the yields of desired pyrazoles up to 99% and simplifies their isolation to a simple procedure of solvent evaporation. The approach requires no complex equipment and utilizes inexpensive, safe, and easy to handle calcium carbide as a starting material. A model deuterium incorporation is carried out according to the developed methodology, producing a series of novel 4,5-dideuteropyrazoles with excellent deuterium enrichment. Theoretical calculations on reaction mechanism and characterization of possible intermediate structures were performed.

Calcium-Mediated One-Pot Preparation of Isoxazoles with Deuterium Incorporation

Ledovskaya M., Rodygin K.S., Ananikov V.P., Org. Chem. Front., 2018, 5, 226–231.
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In this work, a novel synthetic methodology for the one-pot preparation of isoxazoles directly from the reaction of calcium carbide with aldoximes is reported. Calcium carbide acts as a safe and inexpensive acetylene source and, in addition, as a source of the Ca(OH)2 base to enable the generation of nitrile oxide. Various 3-substituted isoxazoles were synthesized from the corresponding aldoximes in good yields (up to 95%) and a series of new deuterated 4,5-dideuteroisoxazoles were prepared.

Vinylation of a Secondary Amine Core with Calcium Carbide for Efficient Post-Modification and Access to Polymeric Materials

Rodygin K.S., Bogachenkov A.S., Ananikov V.P., Molecules, 2018, 23, 648.
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We developed a simple and efficient strategy to access N-vinyl secondary amines of various naturally occurring materials using readily available solid acetylene reagents (calcium carbide, KF, and KOH). Pyrrole, pyrazole, indoles, carbazoles, and diarylamines were successfully vinylated in good yields. Cross-linked and linear polymers were synthesized from N-vinyl carbazoles through free radical and cationic polymerization. Post-modification of olanzapine (an antipsychotic drug substance) was successfully performed.

Improvement of quality of 3D printed objects by elimination of microscopic structural defects in fused deposition modeling

Gordeev E. G., Galushko A. S., Ananikov V. P., PLoS ONE, 2018, 13, e0198370.
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Additive manufacturing with fused deposition modeling (FDM) is currently optimized for a wide range of research and commercial applications. The major disadvantage of FDM-created products is their low quality and structural defects (porosity), which impose an obstacle to utilizing them in functional prototyping and direct digital manufacturing of objects intended to contact with gases and liquids. This article describes a simple and efficient approach for assessing the quality of 3D printed objects. Using this approach it was shown that the wall permeability of a printed object depends on its geometric shape and is gradually reduced in a following series: cylinder > cube > pyramid > sphere > cone. Filament feed rate, wall geometry and G-code-defined wall structure were found as primary parameters that influence the quality of 3D-printed products. Optimization of these parameters led to an overall increase in quality and improvement of sealing properties. It was demonstrated that high quality of 3D printed objects can be achieved using routinely available printers and standard filaments.