16 May 2023

Multicationic Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: A Framework for Combating Bacterial Resistance

During previous stages of research, high biocidal activity toward microorganism archival strains has been used as the main indicator in the development of new antiseptic formulations. Although this factor remains one of the most important characteristics of biocide efficiency, the scale of antimicrobial resistance spread causes serious concern. Therefore, focus shifts toward the development of formulations with a stable effect even in the case of prolonged contact with pathogens. Here, we introduce an original isocyanuric acid alkylation method with the use of available alkyl dichlorides, which opened access to a wide panel of multi-QACs with alkyl chains of various lengths between the nitrogen atoms of triazine and pyridine cycles. We used a complex approach for the resulting series of 17 compounds, including their antibiofilm properties, bacterial tolerance development, and antimicrobial activity toward multiresistant pathogenic strains. As a result of these efforts, available compounds have shown higher levels of antibacterial activity against ESKAPE pathogens than widely used commercial QACs. Hit compounds possessed high activity toward clinical bacterial strains and have also demonstrated a long-term biocidal effect without significant development of microorganism tolerance. The overall results indicated a high level of antibacterial activity and the broad application prospects of multi-QACs based on isocyanuric acid against multiresistant bacterial strains.

Reference: ACS Infect. Dis.., 2023, ASAP.

DOI: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.2c00546.